Editorials

Information Technologies in Education: The Pros and Cons

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The article considers the strengths and weaknesses of the process of informatization of education from the position of the psychology of the student and the psychology of the educational process.

Information technologies in education

Today, information technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for the organization of the educational process, which, unfortunately, are not sufficiently understood in the pedagogical environment.

Traditionally, the principles of the student’s visibility, consciousness and activity, accessibility and feasibility, the consideration of age and individual characteristics, systematism and consistency were considered and are considered as the basic principles of didactics (basic starting points). Principles are also the principles of science, the connection between theory and practice, and education and upbringing. Let’s consider them from the point of view of the application in the educational process of new information technologies.

The principle of visibility

The principle of visibility in the most vivid form. Everything that can be presented for perception by the senses: visible to the perception by sight, audible to hearing, smells to smell, taste to taste, accessible to touch by touch, must be represented through these organs of perception. Traditional methods of teaching tend to actively rely on this principle.

However, everyone who participates in the educational process knows how much it is laborious in implementation, and most importantly – is limited in application in the presentation of theoretical knowledge. Fundamentally new opportunities are given to us in this respect by information technologies that make it possible to visualize the essential laws and laws of the known that are hidden from direct perception. Various kinds of electronic visualizers are now widely used in the field of physics and chemistry, but still not in due measure.

It is necessary to visualize not only what is given for immediate perception by feelings but also what is expressed by abstract laws and models.

Accessibility and ferasibility

The principle of accessibility and feasibility is reduced to the fact that the material studied is accessible in terms of the level of difficulty, but at the same time, it requires mental and spiritual strength for its assimilation.

The conducted studies on the development of abilities using the method of correlation relations showed that the development of activity begins on the basis of the available capabilities of the individual, but the development of abilities begins when the requirements of the activity begin to exceed their level. It is very difficult to implement this most important principle of didactics in traditional methods of teaching. The teacher must determine an individual measure of the difficulty of the task. The impossible task generates frustration and stress. An easy task does not lead to the development of abilities. The way out is new information technologies. Modern programs allow you to generate tasks of increasing complexity (difficulty). With proper motivation, the student, working with such a program, will himself select tasks that require him to mental strain. Thus, information technologies open fundamentally new horizons in the implementation of this principle.

The principle of individualization of education

The principle of individualization of education is based on the recognition of the uniqueness of each student, from the fact that there are no incompetent students – everyone is capable in his own way. The desire for individualization of instruction faces considerable difficulties in the conditions of a class-lesson system of the organization of the educational process, which involves training of everybody simultaneously under the uniform program and mastering of a considerable volume of educational material. In these conditions, the principle of individualization of instruction remains a good wish, which causes a part of teachers a feeling of inner irritation and dissatisfaction. New information technologies here also offer great opportunities. Everyone can build their own individual program of mastering the necessary teaching material, having access to databases and to the teacher for consultations, performing a self-test through a system of test tasks.

The principle of consciousness and activity

The principle of consciousness and activity means that the student acts as a subject of the educational activity. The student consciously chooses the goals of educational activity, organizes his teaching process, that is, he is an active agent of self-education. It is possible to achieve the full-fledged realization of the principle of consciousness and activity only if the student designs his educational program. And this is possible only thanks to modern information technology training.

Thus, the analysis of traditional didactic principles, which is described in the admission essay in detail, shows that new information technologies create conditions for their full implementation, radically changing the entire educational process.

The need to change attitudes towards traditional forms of education

The need to change attitudes towards traditional forms of education: full-time, part-time, as well as full-time and part-time. The traditional form of education, when the student is in front of the teacher, in the context of information technology loses its meaning. It does not matter where the teacher is and where a student is. The line between full-time and part-time education is erased. Meanwhile, the entire legal and regulatory framework are based on the indicated differentiation of the forms of education. This greatly hinders the development of distance forms of education. Essential changes are needed, which ensure the development of distance education on the basis of modern information technologies.

It should be noted that the class-lesson form of education also needs serious rethinking in the context of the application of new information technologies.

New information technologies are a form of realization of high technologies in education

High technology is currently represented in all spheres of production, and only education modestly stands aside. What are they characterized by? They are characterized by the fact that at the stage of their development large investments are put in the scientific study of all components of production (materials, structures, means of production, and technology). Modern information technologies in education require the same means. This refers to the solution of psychological problems of information technologies, their pedagogical interpretation, the creation of software tools, databases and knowledge bases, electronic textbooks, dispatching programs for the educational process, and much more. Only on the basis of serious financial investments in information technology significant progress in education is possible.

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